A Talk By Jonathan Haidt [2. Are we a community that is bound together by liberal values and then blind to any ideas or findings that threaten our sacred values? I believe the answer is yes, and I'll make 3 points to support that claim. In recent years moral psychology has become a convergence zone for research in many fields.
Symbolic Deviance in social psychology Contemporary symbolic interactionism originated out of ideas of George Herbert Mead and Max Weber. In this framework meanings are constructed during social interaction, and constructed meanings influence the process of social interaction. Many symbolic interactionists see the self as a core meaning constructed through social relations, and influencing social relations.
The structural school of symbolic interactionism uses shared social knowledge from a macro-level culturenatural languagesocial institutionor organization to explain relatively enduring patterns of social interaction and psychology at the micro-leveltypically investigating these matters with quantitative methods.
Identity theory,  affect control theory and the Iowa School  are major programs of research in this tradition. Identity Theory and Affect Control Theory both focus on how actions control mental states, thereby manifesting the underlying cybernetic nature of the approach, evident in Mead's writings  Affect Control Theory provides a mathematical model of role theory and of labeling theory.
Process symbolic interactionism stems from the Chicago School and considers the meanings underlying social interactions to be situated, creative, fluid, and often contested.
Researchers in this tradition frequently use qualitative and ethnographic methods. A journal, Symbolic Interaction, was founded in by the Society for the Study of Symbolic Interaction as a central outlet for the empirical research and conceptual studies produced by scholars in this area.
Postmodern symbolic interactionists understand the notions of self and identity to be increasingly fragmented and illusory, and consider attempts at theorizing to be meta-narratives with no more authority than other conversations. Social exchange theory Social exchange theory emphasizes the idea that social action is the result of personal choices made in order to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
A key component of this theory is the postulation of the "comparison level of alternatives", which is the actor's sense of the best possible alternative i. Theories of social exchange share many essential features with classical economic theories like rational choice theory.
However, social exchange theories differ from economic theories by making predictions about the relationships between persons, and not just the evaluation of goods.
For example, social exchange theories have been used to predict human behaviour in romantic relationships by taking into account each actor's subjective sense of costs i. Expectation states theory Expectation states theory and its popular "sub-theory", status characteristics theory, proposes that individuals use available social information to form expectations for themselves and others.
Group members use stereotypes about competence to attempt to determine who will be comparatively more skilled in any given task, indicating to whom the group should listen and accord status.
Group members use known ability on the task at hand, membership in social categories race, gender, age, education, etc. While exhibiting dominant behavior or being of a certain race, for instance, has no direct connection to actual ability, implicit cultural beliefs about who is relatively more or less socially valued drive group members to "act as if" they believe some people have more useful contributions than others.
As such, the theory has been used to explain the rise, persistence, and enactment of status hierarchies. Another line of research deals with how education, occupation, and other components of social class impact values.
Some studies assess emotional variations, especially in happiness versus alienation and anger, among individuals in different structural positions. Social influence Social influence is a factor in every individual's life.
Social influence takes place when one's thoughts, actions and feelings are affected by other people. It is a way of interaction that affects individual behavior and can occur within groups and between groups.
It is a fundamental process that affects ways of socialization, conformity, leadership and social change. One specific researcher in the field, Erving Goffmanclaims that humans tend to believe that they are actors on a stage. He argues that as a result, individuals will further proceed with their actions based on the response of that individual's 'audience' or in other words, the people to whom he is speaking.
Much like a play, Goffman believes that rules of conversing and communication exist: Breaches of such rules are what make social situations awkward.
Group processes scholars study how group size affects the type and quality of interactions that take place between group members, an area of study initiated by the work of the German social theorist, Georg Simmel.
Dyads consist of two people and triads consist of three people, and the fundamental difference is that one person who leaves a dyad dissolves that group whereas the same is not true of a triad. The difference between these two types of groups also indicates the fundamental nature of group size, which is that every additional member of a group increases the group's stability but also decreases the possible amount of intimacy or interactions between any two members.
Groups are also distinguished in terms of how and why the members know each other, and this stems from whether they are members of primary groups consisting of close friends and family held together by expressive ties; secondary groups consisting of coworkers, colleagues, classmates, etc.
Group processes researchers also study interactions between groups, such as in the case of Muzafer Sherif 's Robbers Cave Experiment.WebPAC PRO © Innovative Interfaces, Inc. Social Psychology is a hybrid of psychology and sociology.
This discipline studies the “person in the situation” – how our behavior is influenced by our social environment. Over 20, psychology links on a wide variety topics.
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Psychological, Social, and Biological foundations of behavior section review for the MCAT organized by officially tested topics. Social psychology is the scientific study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others.
In this definition, scientific refers to the empirical investigation using the scientific urbanagricultureinitiative.com terms thoughts, feelings, and behavior refer to psychological variables that can be measured in humans.
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