They have formed the basis for many of the political institutions of the West since the late nineteenth century, tackling as they do the appropriate grounds for protecting individual liberty, the basic principles of ethics, the benefits and the costs of representative institutions, and the central importance of gender equality in society. These essays are central to the liberal tradition, but their interpretation and how we should understand their connection with each other are both contentious. In their introduction Mark Philp and Frederick Rosen set the essays in the context of Mill's other works, and argue that his conviction in the importance of the development of human character in its full diversity provides the core to his liberalism and to any defensible account of the value of liberalism to the modern world.
Raised in Iowa and Oregon, he was one of the first students at Stanford University under its distinguished founder, David Starr Jordan coming to Stanford from the presidency of Indiana University, Jordan was one of the most knowledgeable of the many prominent persons who spoke out boldly in the anti-imperialistic cause during the Spanish-American War and the suppression of Philippine independence.
Hoover's training in geology at Stanford should not mislead us into viewing him as a narrowly trained engineer lacking a global vision. Hoover received a broad-based education at Quaker academies in West Branch, Iowa and Newberg, Oregon; and, after graduating from Stanford, he took advantage of opportunities for extensive self-education and far-flung travels.
His career in mining took Hoover not only to Four essays on liberty table of contents gold mines of the western United States but also to other mines throughout the world: From his offices in San Francisco, New York, and London, Hoover travelled by boat throughout nearly two decades to supervise his extensive business interests in such distant locations as Australia and China.
Our understanding of this early part of Hoover's career has been illuminated by the biographical studies of Professors David Burner and George Nash, who inform us that during those long voyages Hoover read many thousands of volumes.
Hoover's skillful translation from the Latin of Georgius Agricola's mining treatise De Re Metallica displays only one facet of his vast knowledge. Another indication of Hoover's ongoing passion for developing his mind was his decision to make his home on the Stanford campus for long periods of time.
Yet, when he returned to the United States following the First World War and the Versailles Conference, Hoover judged that the learning available in universities was inadequate to deal with the turbulent new world emerging from those cataclysms.
The economic catastrophe of the First World War had shaken the stability of the laissez-faire capitalist world order. The nineteenth-century classical liberal ideas that Hoover had studied had proved powerless to defend capitalism; they had failed to prevent a protracted world conflict that dissipated the hard-won capital accumulation of an entire century.
Hoover responded to this tragic situation by founding at Stanford the Edition: Hoover's research institutions were intended to study how to achieve the peace so necessary for capitalist institutions, and also how to avoid wars whose economic dislocations would lead to socialist revolutions.
Taft serving as his legal advisor in each. Having devoted their energies during World War I and the immediate postwar period devising how to feed Americans and then all of Europe inHoover also headed a relief organization to provide food for the famine-ridden Soviet UnionHoover and Taft had time, following the Versailles Conference, to reflect and draw lessons.
America had entered the First World War at the very point when all belligerents were exhausted and faced with the need to negotiate a settlement. America's intervention upset the balance, gave one side the advantage, thus precluding a negotiated settlement while undermining the institutions of the Central Powers.
However Russia, one of the Allies, though thoroughly exhausted, remained in the war at America's behest and suffered the consequence of the Bolshevik Revolution. Later, the agonies of the prolonged war inspired other Communist revolutions that wracked Germany and eastern European countries.
This fateful connection between war and the rise of socialism was evident to Hoover. All countries came out of the war with government intervention vastly increased, whether they maintained the form of democracy or opted for socialism or fascism. This cycle of war-spawned degeneration was continued with the Great Depression being the economic consequence of the First World War and with the unfair Versailles Treaty ushering in Nazi electoral victories in Germany and similar backlashes elsewhere.
As thirty-first president of the United States, Hoover faced the effects of war and economic interventionism in both domestic and foreign policy. The Great Depression generated major new problems in foreign policy to match those of America's domestic disarray.
The most serious foreign crisis faced by the Hoover presidency was a direct consequence of the domestic economic crisis and concerned Japanese activities in Manchuria. The Great Depression caused many governments, including the United States and Great Britain, to respond with increased trade protectionism.
As a result, Japan was increasingly shut out of markets it had gained after from its increased productivity Edition: Japan lost markets in British India and other major colonies controlled by Western powers. In response to this economic warfare, Japan sought a situation equal to the Western Powers with regard to Manchuria, a recent addition to China.
To resolve this threatening problem with Japan, Hoover opted for one of two competing state department approaches.
Overruling the aggressive state department position, which would have built up China and other major powers in the northern far East such as the Soviet Union in order to operate antagonistically toward the Japanese, Hoover endorsed the alternative state department policy aiming at a negotiated settlement between China and Japan.
By this more conciliatory policy, Hoover sought to maintain reasonable relations between the United States and Japan, and remove an opportunity for the Soviet Union to gain at the expense of United States-Japanese relations.
Hoover's decision has been recognized as a major milestone in peaceful statesmanship. The New Deal's reversal of Hoover's policy led ultimately to American economic restrictions on Japan and Japan's predictable attempt to escape those consequences through military responses. Herbert Hoover, Robert A.On Liberty, Utilitarianism and Other Essays.
Second Edition. John Stuart Mill Edited by Mark Philp and Frederick Rosen Oxford World's Classics. A revised edition of the best single-volume compilation of Mill's principal works, including a new introduction, expanded notes, and an index for the first time. The Online Library of Liberty A Project Of Liberty Fund, Inc.
John Stuart Mill,The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XVIII - Essays on Politics and Society Part I  The Online Library Of Liberty This E-Book (PDF format) is published by Liberty Fund, Inc., a private, Table Of Contents Introduction Textual Introduction.
Title Page Original Table of Contents or First Page Edition used: Leonard P. Liggio, Literature of Liberty: A Review of Contemporary Liberal Thought was published first by the Cato Institute () and later by the Institute for Humane Studies () under the editorial direction of .
Liberty is a revised and expanded edition of the book that Isaiah Berlin regarded as his most important--Four Essays on Liberty, a standard text of liberalism, constantly in demand and constantly discussed since it was first published in Writing in Harper's, Irving Howe described it as "an.
Liberty: Incorporating Four Essays on Liberty / Edition 1 Liberty is a revised and expanded edition of the book that Isaiah Berlin regarded as his most important— Four Essays on Liberty, a standard text of liberalism, constantly in demand and constantly discussed since it was first published in Price: $ Mill's four essays, 'On Liberty', 'Utilitarianism', 'Considerations on Representative Government', and 'The Subjection of Women' examine the most central issues that face liberal democratic regimes - whether in the nineteenth century or the twenty-first.