I want to start with some apologies. For the record, here and upfront, I apologise for having spent several years ripping up GM crops. I am also sorry that I helped to start the anti-GM movement back in the mid s, and that I thereby assisted in demonising an important technological option which can be used to benefit the environment. As an environmentalist, and someone who believes that everyone in this world has a right to a healthy and nutritious diet of their choosing, I could not have chosen a more counter-productive path.
I had been calling it CamelCase for years. In Italian, pronouns can be suffixed to verbs, and because the honorific form of second-person pronouns is capitalized, this can produce a sentence like non ho trovato il tempo di risponderLe "I have not found time to answer you" - where Le means "to you".
In Germanthe medial capital letter Icalled Binnen-Iis sometimes used in a word like StudentInnen "students" to indicate that both Studenten "male students" and Studentinnen "female students" are intended simultaneously.
However, mid-word capitalisation does not conform to German orthography ; the previous example could be correctly written using parentheses as Student inn en, analogous to "congress wo man" in English.
In recent Scots Gaelic orthographya hyphen has been inserted: This convention is also used by several written Bantu languages e. In Dutchwhen capitalizing the digraph ijboth the letter I and the letter J are capitalized, for example in the countryname IJsland. In English, medial capitals are usually only found in Scottish or Irish "Mac-" or "Mc-" names, where for example MacDonald, McDonald, and Macdonald are common spelling variants of the same name, and in Anglo-Norman "Fitz-" names, where for example both FitzGerald and Fitzgerald are found.
Fowler suggested that medial capitals could be used in triple compound words where hyphens would cause ambiguity—the examples they give are KingMark-like as against King Mark-like and Anglo-SouthAmerican as against Anglo-South American. However, they described the system as "too hopelessly contrary to use at present.
For example, in transliterated Hebrewha'Ivri means "the Hebrew person" or "the Jew" and b'Yerushalayim means "in Jerusalem". In Tibetan proper names like rLobsang, the "r" stands for a prefix glyph in the original script that functions as tone marker rather than a normal letter.
Another example is tsIurku, a Latin transcription of the Chechen term for the capping stone of the characteristic Medieval defensive towers of Chechenia and Ingushetia ; the capital letter "I" here denoting a phoneme distinct from the one transcribed as "i".
In abbreviations[ edit ] Medial capitals are traditionally used in abbreviations to reflect the capitalization that the words would have when written out in full, for example in the academic titles PhD or BSc.
In German, the names of statutes are abbreviated using embedded capitals, e. In this context, there can even be three or more "CamelCase" capitals, e. In French, camel case acronyms such as OuLiPo were favored for a time as alternatives to initialisms. Camel case is often used to transliterate initialisms into alphabets where two letters may be required to represent a single character of the original alphabet, e.
History of modern technical use[ edit ] Chemical formulae[ edit ] The first systematic and widespread use of medial capitals for technical purposes was the notation for chemical formulae invented by the Swedish chemist Jacob Berzelius in To replace the multitude of naming and symbol conventions used by chemists until that time, he proposed to indicate each chemical element by a symbol of one or two letters, the first one being capitalized.
The capitalization allowed formulae like "NaCl" to be written without spaces and still be parsed without ambiguity. This has been further extended to describe the amino acid sequences of proteins and other similar domains.Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA) is a service we offer sellers that lets them store their products in Amazon's fulfillment centers, and we directly pack, ship, and provide customer service for these products.
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COMMUNIQUE #3 Haymarket Issue "I NEED ONLY MENTION in passing that there is a curious reappearance of the Catfish tradition in the popular Godzilla cycle of films which arose after the nuclear chaos unleashed upon Japan.