News million already live on less than a dollar a day. Indians are aware of the need for birth control, but too many remain ignorant of contraception methods or are unwilling to discuss them. Each state differs so widely in economic and social development that it is difficult to speak of the country as a whole. Policy-makers used to think that development would be the best contraceptive, with little attention given to planning a widespread population policy - except in the late s when Prime Minister Indira Gandhi suspended the constitution, and people were forcibly sterilized.
Yet the early 19th century in both countries must be briefly probed in order to explain the ability and willingness to react decisively to a new Western challenge after Russian rulers, beginning with Catherine the Great in her later years, sought means to protect the country from Western revolutionary contagion, and in the process the sense that Western policies might serve as models for Russia faded dramatically.
This turn toward renewed isolation was supported by conservative intellectuals who seized the opportunity to vaunt Russian values over those of the chaotic West. In the eyes of these aristocratic writers, Russia knew the true meaning of community and stability. The system of serfdom provided ignorant peasants with the guidance and protection of paternalistic masters - an inaccurate social analysis, but a comforting one.
A new tsar, Alexander I, flirted with liberal rhetoric, but he also sponsored the Holy Alliance idea at the Congress of Vienna that grouped the conservative monarchies of Russia, Prussia, and Austria in defense of religion and the established order.
The idea of Russia as a bastion of sanity in a Europe gone mad was an appealing one. The defense of the status quo produced some important new tensions, however. A number of intellectuals remained fascinated with Western progress, though they typically criticized certain aspects of it.
Others focused more purely on Western cultural styles. Early in the 19th century, Russia began to contribute creatively to European cultural output.
The poet Pushkin, for example, descended from an African slave, used romantic styles to celebrate the beauties of the Russian soul and the tragic dignity of the common people. Because of its compatibility with the use of folklore and a sense of nationalism, the romantic style took deep root in eastern Europe.
Russian musical composers would Industrialization in india from the late begin their contributions, again using folk themes and sonorous sentimentality within an essentially Western stylistic context.
Many intellectuals were jailed or exiled to the West, in a pattern that to some extent has continued until very recently. Western values also inspired a minor but disturbing political revolt, the Decembrist uprising in The officers were not well organized, and they were divided between a majority who wanted political improvements and nothing more and a minority who talked vaguely of more sweeping social change including peasant reforms.
The revolt was easily put down, but it inspired the new tsar, Nicholas I, to still more adamant conservatism. Repression of political opponents stiffened, and the secret police expanded. Newspapers and schools, already confined to a small minority, were tightly supervised.
What political criticism there was flourished mainly in exile in places such as Paris or London, and had little impact on Russia. Partly because of political repression, Russia was spared the wave of revolutions that spread through Europe in and There was no substantial middle class to spearhead liberal protest, and police activity prevented the kind of ideological buildup that preceded revolution in the West.
The artisan class was small and lacked strong organizational traditions. The huge peasant majority had grievances aplenty, and it continued to break out in periodic regional revolts against landlord exactions, but these revolts were not substantial enough to trigger a larger uprising.
Russia seemed to be operating in a different political orbit from that of the West, to the great delight of most Russian officials.
While turning more fiercely conservative than it had been in the 18th century, Russia maintained its tradition of territorial expansion. Russia had confirmed its hold over most of Poland at the Congress of Vienna in after Napoleon had briefly sponsored a separate Polish duchy.
While technically a separate entity under the tsar, the Polish territory was ruled with a heavy hand. Nationalist sentiment, inspired by the growth of romantic nationalism in Poland and backed by many Polish landowners with ties to the West, roused recurrent Polish opposition to Russian rule.
An uprising occurred in andtriggered by news of the revolutions in the West and led by liberal aristocrats and loyal Catholics who chafed under the rule of an Orthodox power. Tsar Nicholas I put down this revolt with great brutality, driving many leaders into exile.
Russia was clearly bent on maintaining full authority over its new European holdings. At the same time the Russians continued pressure on the Ottoman Empire, whose weakness attracted eager attention.
A war in the s led to some territorial gains, though Western powers, fearful of a Russian advance on Constantinople that would provide easy access to the Mediterranean, forced some limitations. France and Britain recurrently tried to prop up Ottoman authority in the interest of countering Russian aggression.
Overall, while no massive acquisitions marked the early 19th century, Russia continued to be a dynamic diplomatic and military force. Economic And Social Problems: As the West industrialized and central European powers, such as Prussia and Austria, introduced at least the beginnings of industrialization, including some rail lines, Russia largely stood pat - this meant that it began to fall increasingly behind the West in technology and trade.
The patterns of the 18th century, which had suggested growing Russian economic dependence on the West, resumed with a vengeance. Russian landlords eagerly took advantage of Western markets for grain, but they increased their exports not by improving their techniques but by tightening the labor obligations on their serfs.
This was a common pattern in much of eastern Europe in the early 19th century, as Polish and Hungarian nobles also increased labor service in order to gain ground in the export market. In return for low-cost grain exports, Russia and other East European areas imported some Western machinery and other costly equipment, as well as luxury goods for the great aristocrats to display as badges of cultured respectability.
A few isolated factories were opened up using Western equipment, but there was no significant change in overall manufacturing or transportation mechanisms.
Russia remained a profoundly agricultural society based on essentially unfree labor, but it was now a visibly stagnant society as well.The Gupta Dynasty that ruled Northern India from the late 3 rd century to the middle of the 6 th century is one of great political history and reflection of Indian culture.
The advancements in philosophy, science, politics, mathematics and astronomy are elements that make the Gupta Dynasty a critical civilization of the early Eastern world.
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