But during the early 19th century, there was a very real crisis going on—a burial crisis.
There is only one bridge across the Thames, but parts of Southwark on the south bank of the river have been developed. Its close commercial connections with the Protestant heartlands in northern continental Europe, large foreign mercantile communities, disproportionately large number of literate inhabitants and role as the centre of the English print trade all contributed to the spread of the new ideas of religious reform.
Before the Reformation, more than half of the area of London was the property of monasteriesnunneries and other religious houses. The process started in the mid s, and by most of the larger monastic houses had been abolished. Holy Trinity Aldgate went to Lord Audleyand the Marquess of Winchester built himself a house in part of its precincts.
This was the period of mercantilism and monopoly trading companies such as the Muscovy Company and the British East India Company were established in London by Royal Charter.
The latter, which ultimately came to rule India, was one of the key institutions in London, and in Britain as a whole, for two and a half centuries. Immigrants arrived in London not just from all over England and Wales, but from abroad as well, for example Huguenots from France; the population rose from an estimated 50, in to aboutin The late 16th and early 17th century saw the great flourishing of drama in London whose preeminent figure was William Shakespeare.
The "Woodcut" map of Londonformally titled Civitas Londinum c.
Many immigrants became disillusioned by routine threats of violence and molestation, attempts at expulsion of foreigners, and the great difficulty in acquiring English citizenship. Dutch cities proved more hospitable, and many left London permanently.
In the opening years of that century the immediate environs of the City, with the principal exception of the aristocratic residences in the direction of Westminster, were still considered not conducive to health. Immediately to the north was Moorfieldswhich had recently been drained and laid out in walks, but it was frequented by beggars and travellers, who crossed it in order to get into London.
Adjoining Moorfields were Finsbury Fields, a favourite practising ground for the archers, Mile Endthen a common on the Great Eastern Road and famous as a rendezvous for the troops.
The preparations for King James I becoming king were interrupted by a severe plague epidemic, which may have killed over thirty thousand people. The new hospital, chapel, and schoolhouse were begun in Charterhouse School was to be one of the principal public schools in London until it moved to Surrey in Victorian times, and the site is still used as a medical school.
Merchants conducted business in the aisles, and used the font as a counter upon which to make their payments; lawyers received clients at their particular pillars; and the unemployed looked for work.
Through the London epidemic of Cholera in , the author presents the Victorian era science, public opinions and participating individuals in the pursuit of stopping the epidemic. The Ghost Map: The Story of London's Most Terrifying Epidemic – and How it Changed Science, Cities and the Modern World is a book by Steven Berlin Johnson in which he describes the most intense outbreak of cholera in Victorian London (See Broad Street cholera outbreak) The book incorporated the idea of gemeinschaft, dealing with the Author: Steven Berlin Johnson. Sir Joseph William Bazalgette, CB (/ ˈ b æ z əl dʒ ɛ t /; 28 March – 15 March ) was a 19th-century English civil urbanagricultureinitiative.com chief engineer of London's Metropolitan Board of Works his major achievement was the creation (in response to the Great Stink of ) of a sewer network for central London which was instrumental in relieving the city from cholera .
Under James I the theatre, which established itself so firmly in the latter years of Elizabeth, grew further in popularity. The performances at the public theatres were complemented by elaborate masques at the royal court and at the inns of court. During his reign, aristocrats began to inhabit the West End in large numbers.
In addition to those who had specific business at court, increasing numbers of country landowners and their families lived in London for part of the year simply for the social life. This was the beginning of the "London season".
The neighbouring streets were built shortly afterwards, and the names of Henrietta, Charles, James, King and York Streets were given after members of the royal family. In August of the same year the King raised his banner at Nottinghamand during the English Civil War London took the side of the parliament.
Initially the king had the upper hand in military terms and in November he won the Battle of Brentford a few miles to the west of London. The City organised a new makeshift army and Charles hesitated and retreated.
Subsequently, an extensive system of fortifications was built to protect London from a renewed attack by the Royalists.
This comprised a strong earthen rampart, enhanced with bastions and redoubts. It was well beyond the City walls and encompassed the whole urban area, including Westminster and Southwark. The unsanitary and overcrowded City of London has suffered from the numerous outbreaks of the plague many times over the centuries, but in Britain it is the last major outbreak which is remembered as the " Great Plague " It occurred in and and killed around 60, people, which was one fifth of the population.
Samuel Pepys chronicled the epidemic in his diary. On 4 September he wrote "I have stayed in the city till above died in one week, and of them about of the plague, and little noise heard day or night but tolling of bells.
Great Fire of London The Great Plague was immediately followed by another catastrophe, albeit one which helped to put an end to the plague. Fanned by an eastern wind the fire spread, and efforts to arrest it by pulling down houses to make firebreaks were disorganised to begin with.
On Tuesday night the wind fell somewhat, and on Wednesday the fire slackened. On Thursday it was extinguished, but on the evening of that day the flames again burst forth at the Temple.
Some houses were at once blown up by gunpowder, and thus the fire was finally mastered. The Monument was built to commemorate the fire: However, the number of lives lost was surprisingly small; it is believed to have been 16 at most.
Within a few days of the fire, three plans were presented to the king for the rebuilding of the city, by Christopher WrenJohn Evelyn and Robert Hooke. Wren wished to build the new streets straight and in three standard widths of thirty, sixty and ninety feet. These plans were not implemented, and the rebuilt city generally followed the streetplan of the old one, and most of it has survived into the 21st century.
The development of the West End had recently begun to accelerate.Jan 05, · London’s Cholera Epidemic In a Cholera Epidemic struck London. This was the first time the medical community was able to trace the outbreak of an epidemic to one particular source (in this case a public.
As the subtitle makes clear, this book tells the story of London’s sudden and deadly cholera outbreak in August, , and how Dr. John Snow correctly traced it to .
Through the London epidemic of Cholera in , the author presents the Victorian era science, public opinions and participating individuals in the pursuit of stopping the epidemic.
The book is about the urbanization of society and subsequent public health challenges, and how the experience shaped the management of urban governing through. Through the London epidemic of Cholera in , the author presents the Victorian era science, public opinions and participating individuals in the pursuit of stopping the epidemic.
The book is about the urbanization of society and subsequent public health challenges, and how the experience shaped the management of urban governing through /5(). Through the London epidemic of Cholera in , the author presents the Victorian era science, public opinions and participating individuals in the pursuit of stopping the epidemic.
THE SOH0 CHOLERA EPIDEMIC by Mr.
W. R. Winterton Cholera IS an infection which has been endemic in many parts of the world for centuries. In India there is a statue of the time of Alexanderthe Great of a cholera vict~m but the flrst appearance of the infection in the British Isles is comparatively.