None of these studies reported on the prevalence of common mental disorders during pregnancy. In general, recruitment strategies were not described in detail and few studies considered potential selection biases. Where antenatal care coverage is high, consecutive cohorts yield reasonably representative samples of pregnant women.
Physical abuse[ edit ] Among professionals and the general public, people often do not agree on what behaviors constitute physical abuse of a child. This includes hitting, beating, kicking, shaking, biting, strangling, scalding, burning, poisoning and suffocating. Much physical violence against children in the home is inflicted with the object of punishing.
Corporal punishment involves hitting 'smacking', 'slapping', 'spanking' children, with the hand or with an implement — whip, stick, belt, shoe, wooden spoon, etc.
But it can also involve, for example, kicking, shaking or throwing children, scratching, pinching, biting, pulling hair or boxing ears, forcing children to stay in uncomfortable positions, burning, scalding or forced ingestion for example, washing children's mouths out with soap or forcing them to swallow hot spices.
The psychologist Alice Millernoted for her books on child abuse, took the view that humiliations, spankings and beatings, slaps in the face, etc.
Physical abuse in childhood has also been linked to homelessness in adulthood. Child sexual abuse and child-on-child sexual abuse Child sexual abuse CSA is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent abuses a child for sexual stimulation.
Psychological abuse There are multiple definitions of child psychological abuse: Inthe American Psychiatric Association APA added Child Psychological Abuse to the DSM-5describing it as "nonaccidental verbal or symbolic acts by a child's parent or caregiver that result, or have reasonable potential to result, in significant psychological harm to the child.
Emotional abuse can result in abnormal or disrupted attachment developmenta tendency for victims to blame themselves self-blame for the abuse, learned helplessnessand overly passive behavior. Child neglect Child neglect is the failure of a parent or other person with responsibility for the child, to provide needed food, clothing, shelter, medical care, or supervision to the degree that the child's health, safety or well-being may be threatened with harm.
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Neglect is also a lack of attention from the people surrounding a child, and the non-provision of the relevant and adequate necessities for the child's survival, which would be a lacking in attention, love, and nurture.
Neglected children may experience delays in physical and psychosocial development, possibly resulting in psychopathology and impaired neuropsychological functions including executive functionattentionprocessing speedlanguage, memory and social skills. Such children are not likely to view caregivers as being a source of safety, and instead typically show an increase in aggressive and hyperactive behaviors which may disrupt healthy or secure attachment with their adopted parents.
These children have apparently learned to adapt to an abusive and inconsistent caregiver by becoming cautiously self-reliant, and are often described as glib, manipulative and disingenuous in their interactions with others as they move through childhood.
Effects[ edit ] Child abuse can result in immediate adverse physical effects but it is also strongly associated with developmental problems  and with many chronic physical and psychological effects, including subsequent ill-health, including higher rates of chronic conditions, high-risk health behaviors and shortened lifespan.
Children who are constantly ignored, shamed, terrorized or humiliated suffer at least as much, if not more, than if they are physically assaulted.
Many abused children experience ongoing difficulties with trust, social withdrawal, trouble in school, and forming relationships. Babies and pre-school children who are being emotionally abused or neglected may be overly affectionate towards strangers or people they haven't known for very long.
RAD is defined as markedly disturbed and developmentally inappropriate social relatedness, that usually begins before the age of 5 years.
The long-term impact of emotional abuse has not been studied widely, but recent studies have begun to document its long-term consequences. Research has shown that children exposed to domestic violence increases the chances of experienced behavioral and emotional problems depression, irritability, anxiety, academic problems, and problems in language development.
Rib fractures in an infant secondary to child abuse The immediate physical effects of abuse or neglect can be relatively minor bruises or cuts or severe broken bones, hemorrhage, or even death.
In some cases the physical effects are temporary; however, the pain and suffering they cause a child should not be discounted. Rib fractures may be seen with physical abuse, and if present may increase suspicion of abuse, but are found in a small minority of children with maltreatment-related injuries.
Child abuse and neglect have been shown, in some cases, to cause important regions of the brain to fail to form or grow properly, resulting in impaired development. In addition to possible immediate adverse physical effects, household dysfunction and childhood maltreatment are strongly associated with many chronic physical and psychological effects, including subsequent ill-health in childhood,  adolescence  and adulthood, with higher rates of chronic conditions, high-risk health behaviors and shortened lifespan.
The initial phase of the study was conducted in San Diego, California from to A strong relationship was seen between the number of adverse experiences including physical and sexual abuse in childhood and self-reports of cigarette smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, alcoholism, drug abuse, depression, attempted suicide, sexual promiscuity and sexually transmitted diseases in later life.
Rates of depression are twice as high. Other risk behaviors are even higher. It has been discovered that childhood abuse can lead to the addiction of drugs and alcohol in adolescence and adult life. Studies show that any type of abuse experienced in childhood can cause neurological changes making an individual more prone to addictive tendencies.1 Plan Asia Regional Office Plan / Bernice Wong Asia Child Marriage Initiative: Summary of Research in Bangladesh, India and Nepal.
The U.S. Department of State considers forced marriage to be a human rights abuse, in the case of minors also a form of child abuse.
Often, victims are subjected to non-consensual sex, physical and emotional abuse, isolation, and threats of violence.
Despite signs of progress, Bangladesh continues to have one of the highest child marriage rates worldwide and the highest rate of marriage involving girls under 52% of girls are married by their 18th birthday, [ ].
Q & A: Child Marriage and Violations of Girls' Rights. Human Rights Watch has cited cases of child marriage in Bangladesh, Chad, Egypt, India, Iraq, Kenya, Papua New Guinea, Saudi Arabia.
Bangladesh e-Journal of Sociology. Volume 10 Number 1, January Effects of Family Breakup on Children: A Study in Khulna City Shirina Aktar*.
a. Jean Hailes Research Unit, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Clayton, Melbourne, Australia b. Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. c. Centre for Global Mental Health, London School of.