Scientific method and argument

November 19, In The Limitation of Bacon's Scientific Method Jacob Schriftman suggests that the scientific method is based on the formal logical fallacy commonly known as "Affirming the Consequent. Could it be that the scientific method is founded on bad reasoning? In this post I will attempt to explain the suggestion made by Schriftman and then I will share my thoughts on the implications. Let's begin with the formal logical fallacy commonly known as "Affirming the Consequent.

Scientific method and argument

Scientific method and argument

Timeline of the history of scientific method Aristotle— BCE. A polymath, considered by some to be the father of modern scientific methodologydue to his emphasis on experimental data and reproducibility of its results. This is the greatest piece of Retroductive reasoning ever performed.

According to Albert Einstein"All knowledge of reality starts from experience and ends in it. Propositions arrived at by purely logical means are completely empty as regards reality. Because Galileo saw this, and particularly because he drummed it into the scientific world, he is the father of modern physics — indeed, of modern science altogether.

The term "scientific method" did not come into wide use until the 19th century, when other modern scientific terminologies began to emerge such as "scientist" and "pseudoscience" and significant transformation of science was taking place.

The scientific method is the process by which science is carried out. This is in opposition to stringent forms of rationalism: A strong formulation of the scientific method is not always aligned with a form of empiricism in which the empirical data is put forward in the form of experience or other abstracted forms of knowledge; in current scientific practice, however, the use of scientific modelling and reliance on abstract typologies and theories is normally accepted.

The scientific method is of necessity also an expression of an opposition to claims that e. Different early expressions of empiricism and the scientific method can be found throughout history, for instance with the ancient StoicsEpicurus[30] Alhazen[31] Roger Baconand William of Ockham.

From the 16th century onwards, experiments were advocated by Francis Baconand performed by Giambattista della Porta[32] Johannes Kepler[33] and Galileo Galilei. The current method is based on a hypothetico-deductive model [36] formulated in the 20th century, although it has undergone significant revision since first proposed for a more formal discussion, see below.

Process The overall process involves making conjectures hypothesesderiving predictions from them as logical consequences, and then carrying out experiments based on those predictions to determine whether the original conjecture was correct.

Though the scientific method is often presented as a fixed sequence of steps, these actions are better considered as general principles. As noted by scientist and philosopher William Whewell —"invention, sagacity, [and] genius" [11] are required at every step. Formulation of a question The question can refer to the explanation of a specific observationas in "Why is the sky blue?

If the answer is already known, a different question that builds on the evidence can be posed. When applying the scientific method to research, determining a good question can be very difficult and it will affect the outcome of the investigation.

A statistical hypothesis is a conjecture about a given statistical population. For example, the population might be people with a particular disease.Because scientific tests are impossible without the evidence-claim relation present in every argument, arguments are an inseparable part of the scientific method.

The scientific method Although empirical questions engender scientific tests, strictly speaking, scientific tests are not tests of empirical questions.

Scientific method and argument

Scientific method should also be distinguished from meta-methodology, which includes the values and justifications behind a particular characterization of scientific method (i.e., a methodology) — values such as objectivity, reproducibility, simplicity, or past successes.

The logic of scientific arguments: Taken together, the expectations generated by a scientific idea and the actual observations relevant to those expectations form what we'll call a scientific is a bit like an argument in a court case — a logical description of what we think and why we think it.

The scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century.

It involves careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what is observed, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept. First, the Scientific Method only applies to questions of cause, classification, or localization.

You can use it to find your lost car keys, but it does not apply directly, for . Inductive reasoning is a method of reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying some evidence for the truth of the conclusion (in contrast to deductive reasoning and abductive reasoning).

While the conclusion of a deductive argument is certain, the truth of the conclusion of an inductive argument may be probable, based upon the.

Scientific Method and Argument – Assignment Example