Each element should be followed by the punctuation mark shown here. Earlier editions of the handbook included the place of publication and required different punctuation such as journal editions in parentheses and colons after issue numbers.
History[ edit ] Plato's forms, the beginning of ekphrasis[ edit ] In the Republic, Book X, Plato discusses forms by using real things, such as a bedfor example, and calls each way a bed has been made, a "bedness".
He commences with the original form of a bed, one of a variety of ways a bed may have been constructed by a craftsman and compares that form with an ideal form of a bed, of a perfect archetype or image in the form of which beds ought to be made, in short, the epitome of bedness.
In his analogy, one bedness form shares its own bedness — with all its shortcomings — with that of the ideal form, or template. A third bedness, too, may share the ideal form. He continues with the fourth form also containing elements of the ideal template or archetype which in this way remains an ever-present and invisible ideal version with which the craftsman compares his work.
As bedness after bedness shares the ideal form and template of all creation of beds, and each bedness is associated with another writing a 5 w poem definition infinitum, it is called an "infinite regress of forms".
From form to ekphrasis[ edit ] It was this epitome, this template of the ideal form, that a craftsman or later an artist would try to reconstruct in his attempt to achieve perfection in his work, that was to manifest itself in ekphrasis at a later stage.
Artists began to use their own literary and artistic genre of art to work and reflect on another art to illuminate what the eye might not see in the original, to elevate it and possibly even surpass it.
Plato and Aristotle[ edit ] For Plato and Aristotleit is not so much the form of each bed that defines bedness: The painter's products stand before us as though they were alive, but if you question them, they maintain a most majestic silence.
It is the same with written words; they seem to talk to you as if they were intelligent, but if you ask them anything about what they say, from a desire to be instructed, they go on telling you just the same thing forever".
Ekphrasis is described in Aphthonius ' Progymnasmatahis textbook of styleand later classical literary and rhetorical textbooks, and with other classical literary techniques was keenly revived in the Renaissance.
In the Middle Ages, ekphrasis was less often practiced, especially as regards real objects, and historians of medieval art have complained that the accounts of monastic chronicles recording now vanished art concentrate on objects made from valuable materials or with the status of relicsand rarely give more than the cost and weight of objects, and perhaps a mention of the subject matter of the iconography.
The Renaissance and Baroque periods made much use of ekphrasis. In Spain, Lope de Vega often used allusions and descriptions of Italian art in his plays, and included the painter Titian as one of his characters. Cervanteswho spent his youth in Italy, utilized many Renaissance frescoes and paintings in Don Quixote and many of his other works.
In England, Shakespeare briefly describes a group of erotic paintings in Cymbelinebut his most extended exercise is a line description of the Greek army before Troy in The Rape of Lucrece. Ekphrasis seems to have been less common in France during these periods.
Herman Melville's Moby Dickor The Whale features an intense use of ekphrasis as a stylistic manifesto of the book in which it appears.
In the chapter "The Spouter Inn", a painting hanging on the wall of a whaler's inn is described as irreconcilably unclear, overscrawled with smoke and defacements. The narrator, so-called Ishmael, describes how this painting can be both lacking any definition and still provoking in the viewer dozens of distinct possible understandings, until the great mass of interpretations resolves into a Whale, which grounds all the interpretations while containing them, an indication of how Melville sees his own book unfolding around this chapter.
In Ibsen 's work The Lady from the Seathe first act begins with the description of a painting of a mermaid dying on the shore and is followed by a description of a sculpture that depicts a woman having a nightmare of an ex-lover returning to her.
Both works of art can be interpreted as having much importance in the overall meaning of the play as protagonist Ellida Wangel both yearns for her lost youth spent on an island out at sea and is later in the play visited by a lover she thought dead.
Furthermore, as an interesting example of the back-and-forth dynamic that exists between literary ekphrasis and art, in eight years after the play was written Norwegian painter Edvard Munch painted an image similar to the one described by Ibsen in a painting he entitled unsurprisingly enough Lady from the Sea.
Ibsen's last work When We Dead Awaken also contains examples of ekphrasis as the play's protagonist, Arnold Rubek, is a sculptor who several times throughout the play describes his masterpiece "Resurrection Day" at length and in the many different forms the sculpture took throughout the stages of its creation.
Once again the evolution of the sculpture as described in the play can be read as a reflection on the transformation undergone by Rubek himself and even as a statement on the progression Ibsen's own plays took as many scholars have read this final play stated by Ibsen himself to be an 'epilogue' as the playwright's reflection on his own work as an artist.
The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus. About Me Poetry: The directions were as follows: Write a paragraph about urbanagricultureinitiative.com some poetic language in to describe something in the paragraph. When you read this poem and others you will realize that when you do poetry all year the kids can and will apply it to everything. Who? What? When? Where? Why? Use these questions to write a non-rhyming poem. Here's how: Line 1: Who or what is the poem about? Line 2: What action is happening?
In this novel, the protagonist, Prince Myshkin, sees a painting of a dead Christ in the house of Rogozhin that has a profound effect on him. Later in the novel, another character, Hippolite, describes the painting at much length depicting the image of Christ as one of brutal realism that lacks any beauty or sense of the divine.
Rogozhin, who is himself the owner of the painting, at one moment says that the painting has the power to take away a man's faith, a comment that Dostoyevsky himself made to his wife Anna upon seeing the actual painting that the painting in the novel is based on, The Body of the Dead Christ in the Tomb by Hans Holbein.
The painting was seen shortly before Dostoyevsky began the novel. Though this is the major instance of ekphrasis in the novel, and the one which has the most thematic importance to the story as a whole, other instances can be spotted when Prince Myshkin sees a painting of Swiss landscape that reminds him of a view he saw while at a sanatorium in Switzerland, and also when he first sees the face of his love interest, Nastasya, in the form of a painted portrait.
At one point in the novel, Nastasya, too, describes a painting of Christ, her own imaginary work that portrays Christ with a child, an image which naturally evokes comparison between the image of the dead Christ.
Dorian meets Lord Henry Wotton, who espouses a new hedonism, dedicated to the pursuit of beauty and all pleasures of the senses. Under his sway, Dorian bemoans the fact that his youth will soon fade.
He would sell his soul so as to have the portrait age rather than himself. As Dorian engages in a debauched life, the gradual deterioration of the portrait becomes a mirror of his soul.
There are repeated instances of notional ekphrasis of the deteriorating figure in the painting throughout the novel, although these are often partial, leaving much of the portrait's imagery to the imagination. The novel forms part of the magic portrait genre.
Wilde had previously experimented with employing portraits in his written work, as in The Portrait of Mr. In the 20th century, Roger Zelazny 's " 24 Views of Mt. Fuji, by Hokusai " uses an ekphrastic frame, descriptions of Hokusai 's famous series of woodcuts, as a structural device for his story.
Ekphrastic poetry[ edit ] This is a design of the Shield of Achilles based on the description in the Iliad. It was completed by Angelo Monticelli c.Community organizations and service providers were on hand during the party, and girls in the mentoring programs at each of the three high schools had an opportunity to .
Lay vs. Lie: Usage Guide. Verb. lay has been used intransitively in the sense of "lie" lay down for a quick nap since the 14th century. The practice was unremarked until around ; attempts to correct it have been a fixture of schoolbooks ever since. Generations of teachers and critics have succeeded in taming most literary and learned writing, but intransitive lay persists in familiar.
Poetry definition: Poems, considered as a form of literature, are referred to as poetry. | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples. Sep 06, · How to Write a Poem.
Writing a poem is all about observing the world within or around you. A poem can be about anything, from love to loss to the rusty gate at the old farm%(). The old-fashioned lead of the five Ws and the H, crystallized largely by Pulitzer's "new journalism" and sanctified by the schools, is widely giving way to the much more supple and interesting feature lead, even on straight news stories.
cinquain (SIN-cain): an unrhymed poem consisting of five lines arranged in a special way.. Planet Graceful, ringed Spinning, whirling, twirling Dances with neighbor Jupiter Saturn.
A cinquain is an example of shape urbanagricultureinitiative.come of the exact number of words required for each line of this poem, a unique, symmetrical shape is created from interesting, descriptive words.